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Background: Co-infection with malaria and HIV increases the severity and mortality of both diseases, but the cytokine responses related to this co-infection are only partially characterised.

The aim of this study was to explore cytokine responses in relation to severity and mortality in malaria patients with and without HIV co-infection. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. Clinical data and blood samples were collected from adults in Mozambique. Plasma was analysed for 21 classical pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukins, interferons, and chemokines.

Falciparum malaria was diagnosed in patients, of whom 70 were co-infected with HIV The malaria patients had marked increases in their cytokine responses compared with the healthy controls.

Both these chemokines were markedly increased in patients with falciparum malaria as compared with healthy controls, eskorte tjeneste hiv test stavanger raised levels of IL-8 and IP were associated with increased disease severity, even after adjusting for relevant confounders.

For IL-8, particularly high levels were found in malaria patients that were eskorte tjeneste hiv test stavanger with HIV and in those who died during hospitalization. Interpretations: Our findings underscore the complex role of inflammation during infection with P.

However, the correlations do not necessarily mean any causal relationship, and further both clinical and mechanistic research is necessary to elucidate the role of cytokines in pathogenesis and protection during falciparum malaria. Abstract Background: Co-infection with malaria and HIV increases the severity and mortality of both diseases, but the cytokine responses related to this co-infection are only partially characterised. Publication types Research Support, Non-U. Grant support.

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or eskorte tjeneste hiv test stavanger of the manuscript.


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